Greetings, from my personal experience i find that you can understand rythm in an intellectual way, but after that it’s more important to feel it with your body. I use my feet as a way to connect to the body and music but you can clap or just feel it internally. Tango is an excellent example of a 4/4 with the strong beats on beats 1 and 3. You can for example tap your right foot with beat 1, your left foot with beat 2 and then again right foot with beat 3 and again left at beat 4really accentuating the right foot on beats 1 and 3.
Now you can take other 4/4 rhytms but with accents on the 2 and 4, you will see it gives a totally different sensation like it os pushing forward. Gypsy jazz is an axcelloent example of a 4/4 but with the accents on 2 and 4, do the same with your feet but change the accents.
Then you can continue your explorations with rhytms with a 3/4 meter and it’s more complex sister 6/8. A lot of Latin Ameri9can folklore has the 6/8 rhtym the key being the accents are on beats 1 and 4. I personally tap my right foot with one, left on 2, right on 3 and then repeat right foot on 4.
Then you can continue with more irregular rhytms, some famous examples are take five in 5/4, Money in 7/4, clair de lune is a very interesting 9/8. If you want to take even further compose your own lines in different time signatures, play or sing them. Lastly a lot of people hate the metronome, I think its very important to be able to have an strong inner rythm by yourself but the metronome can be a great way to keep you on check, also it can be very fun to use it if you find creative ways to practice.
I hope this helps, this is just my own intuitive way I approached rhtym.